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0885-8993 (c) 2015 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See
http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI
10.1109/TPEL.2015.2439963, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Manuscript received August 18, 2014; revised November 27, 2014 and
February 11, 2015; accepted May 25, 2015. This work was supported by
the National Science Council (NSC) of Taiwan, under Grant NSC 102-
2221-E-214 -027.
The authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, I-Shou
University, Kaohsiung 84001, Taiwan (e-mail: chchang@isu.edu.tw;
cacheng@isu.edu.tw; enchihchang@isu.edu.tw; hlcheng@isu.edu.tw and
poen_yang@hotmail.com).
An Integrated High-Power-Factor Converter with
ZVS Transition
Chien-Hsuan Chang, Member, IEEE, Chun-An Cheng, Member, IEEE, En-Chih Chang, Hung-Liang Cheng, Member,
IEEE, and Bo-En Yang
Abstract—This paper proposes a single-phase high-powerfactor ac/dc converter with soft-switching characteristic. The circuit topology is derived by integrating a boost converter and a buck converter. The boost converter performs the function of power-factor correction (PFC) to obtain high power factor and
low current harmonics at the input line. The buck converter further regulates the dc-link voltage to provide a stable dc output voltage. Without using any active-clamp circuit or snubber circuit, the active switches of the proposed converter can achieve zero-voltage switching-on (ZVS) transition together with high power factor that satisfies the IEC 61000-3-2 standards over a wide load range from 30% to 100% rated
power. The steady-state analysis is developed and a design example is provided. A prototype circuit of 60 W was built and tested. Experimental results verify the feasibility of the proposed circuit with satisfactory performance.


Keywords—Boost converter, buck converter, power-factor
correction (PFC), zero-voltage switching-on (ZVS).


I. INTRODUCTION
Nowadays, switching-mode ac/dc converters have been
widely used in many off-line appliances, such as dc
uninterruptible power supply, telecommunications power
supply, LED driver etc. [1-2]. The increasing amount urges
researchers to develop more efficient, smaller size, and low
cost ac/dc converters. In order to meet the standards of
harmonic regulation such as IEC 61000-3-2 Class D and
IEEE 519, a power-factor corrector is usually required.
Owing to the advantages of simple circuit topology and
easy control, boost or buck-boost converters have been
widely served as power-factor correctors [3-6]. In order to
achieve unity power factor, it requires the output voltage of
both converter be higher than the amplitude of the ac line
voltage. Therefore, high-power-factor ac/dc converters
usually consist of two stages. The first one is an ac-to-dc
stage which performs the function of PFC and the second
one is a dc-to-dc stage used to supply stable dc voltage to
the load [7-10]. In spite of their good performance, the
circuit efficiency of two-stage approaches is impaired since
it takes two energy-conversion processes which inevitably
introduce some losses including switching loss, conduction
loss and magnetic core loss. Besides the two-stage
approaches, the Cuk and the Sepic converters can also
achieve high power factor and regulate the output voltage
[11-14]. The Cuk converter is a combination of boost and
buck converter and the Sepic converter is a combination of
boost and buck-boost converter. Both converters have the
advantage of simple circuit topology since they only use one
active switch and one diode. High power factor can be
achieved by operating the boost converter either at DCM or
continuous conduction mode (CCM). The buck or buckboost
converter can further regulate the output voltage of the
boost converter to obtain a smooth dc voltage. However, the
output voltage of the boost converter is usually higher than
the amplitude of the AC line voltage. Before turning on the
active switch, the output voltage is across its parasitic
capacitor. The energy stored in the parasitic capacitor is
discharged at turning on the active switch, resulting in high
switching losses and a high spike current. The boost, Cuk
and Sepic converters can also be operated at critical
conduction mode (CRM) to obtain high power factor.
Synchronous rectification (SR) technique is popularly
applied while operating these converters at CRM [15-17]. A
MOSFET is used to replace the freewheel diode, and hence
the conduction loss is effectively reduced. Furthermore, by
extending the turn-on time of the synchronous switch, the
inductor current would decline to negative. This negative
inductor current can discharge the parasitic capacitance of
the main switch to provide ZVS. However, SR technique
requires additional control circuitry to adjust the timing of
the switches. Moreover, the switching frequency is not
constant, but varies a wide range within an AC line period
while operating these converters at CRM.
In pursuit of high efficiency and high power factor,
researchers have presented many single-stage ac/dc
converters based on the integration of a PFC stage and a dcto-
dc stage [18-29]. By sharing one or two active switches,
the single-stage approaches have the advantages of less
component count, simply circuit topology and cost effective.
As compared with two-stage approaches, the circuit
efficiency is improved since only one power-conversion
process is required. Among them, some single-stage
approaches integrate a PFC converter with a full-bridge or
half-bridge resonant converters. These resonant converters
can operate with ZVS if the resonant circuits present
inductive, i.e. the switching frequency is above the resonant
frequency. Moreover, ZVS can be achieved within a wide
load range by variable-frequency control or asymmetrical
pulse-width modulation (APWM). Although, these
0885-8993 (c) 2015 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See
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This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI
10.1109/TPEL.2015.2439963, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
topologies can effectively eliminate switching losses by
switching the active switches near the resonance frequency
to achieve ZVS, operating active switches near the
resonance frequency companies with high resonant current
and results in more conduction losses. The single-stage
approaches that integrate two PWM converters also have
some drawbacks that restrict further improving the circuit
efficiency. The major problem is that the active switches
usually operate in hard switching. An active switch that
operates at hard switching not only generates high switching
losses but also introduces high voltage and current stresses
on circuit components, resulting in poor efficiency and low
circuit stability.
The switching loss is theoretically proportional to the
switching frequency. Now that hard-switching operation has
serious switching losses in the active switches, it prevents
converters from using small magnetic components and
capacitors by increasing the switching frequency. In order to
solve the problem of hard switching, some soft-switching
techniques which adopt active-clamp circuit or snubber
circuit have been proposed [30-36]. These soft-switching
techniques have substantially eliminated the switching loss.
However, these techniques need to use additional auxiliary
switch, diode and reactive components to make the active
switches turn on at zero-voltage. It adds the circuit
complexity and overall cost. Besides, another conduction
losses resulting from the circulating current in the activeclamp
circuit would happen.
In this paper, a new ac/dc converter featuring ZVS with
simple control is presented and analyzed. This paper is
organized as follows. Section II presents the derivation of
the circuit configuration and the circuit operation for the
different operation modes. Detail circuit analysis and design
equations are provided in Section III. In Section IV, a 60-W
prototype circuit is built, and tested to verify the feasibility
of the proposed converter. Finally, some conclusions are
given in Section V.
II. CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION AND OPERATION MODES
Fig. 1 is an example of a high-power-factor ac/dc
converter with a two-stage circuit topology. It consists of a
boost converter and a buck converter. This two-stage
converter can realize high-power factor with a wide load
range. Nevertheless, both active switches of the converter
operate at hard-switching condition, resulting in high
switching losses and high current and voltage stresses.
In order to solve the problem resulting from hard
switching, a new ac/dc converter is proposed, as shown in
Fig. 2. The circuit topology is derived by relocating the
positions of the semiconductor devices in Fig. 1. Here,
MOSFETs S1 and S2 play the roles of active switches and
the antiparallel diodes DS1 and DS2 are their intrinsic body
diodes, respectively. The proposed circuit mainly consists of
a low-pass filter (Lm and Cm), a diode-bridge rectifier (D1-
D4), a boost converter and a buck converter. The boost
converter is composed of Lp, DS1, S2 and Cdc and the buck
Fig. 1. Two-stage ac/dc converter.
Fig. 2. Circuit topology of the proposed ac/dc converter.
converter is composed of Lb, D5, DS2, S1 and Co. Both
converters operate at a high-switching frequency, fs. The
boost converter performs the function of PFC. When it
operates at discontinuous-conduction mode (DCM), the
average value of its inductor current in every high-switching
cycle is approximately a sinusoidal function [5]. The lowpass
filter is used to remove the high frequency current of
the inductor current. By this way, the boost converter can
waveshape the input line current to be sinusoidal and in
phase with the input line voltage. In other word, high power
factor and low total current harmonic distortion (THDi) can
be achieved. The buck converter further regulates the output
voltage of the boost converter to supply stable dc voltage to
the load. It is also deigned to operate at DCM for achieving
ZVS based on the reason that will be discussed in the final
of this section.
Two gate voltages, vGS1 and vGS2 from a half-bridge gate
driver integrated circuit (IC) are used to alternately turn S1
and S2 on and off. These voltages are complementary
rectangular-wave voltages. In order to prevent both active
switches from cross conducting, there is a short non-overlap
time defined as “dead time”. In the dead time, vGS1 and vGS2
are at a low level. Neglecting the short dead time, the duty
cycle of vGS1 and vGS2 is 0.5.
For simplifying the circuit analysis, the following
assumptions are made:
1) The semiconductor devices are ideal except for the
parasitic output capacitance of the MOSFETs.
2) The capacitances of Cdc and Co are large enough that
the dc-link voltage Vdc and the output voltage Vo can be
regarded as constant.
At steady state, the circuit operation can be divided into
eight modes in every high-frequency cycle. Fig. 3 shows the
0885-8993 (c) 2015 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See
http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI
10.1109/TPEL.2015.2439963, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
equivalent circuits for each of the operation modes. In these
equivalent circuits, the low-pass filter and the diode rectifier
are represented by the rectified voltage vrec. Fig. 4 illustrates
the theoretical waveforms in each mode for the case of
operating the buck converter at DCM. The circuit operation
is described as follows.
A. Mode I (t0 < t < t1)
Prior to Mode I, S1 is at “ON” state. The boost-inductor
current ip is zero and the dc-link capacitor supplies the buckinductor
current ib which flows through S1, D5, Lb and Co.
This mode starts when S1 is turned off by the gate voltage,
vGS1. The time interval of this mode is the turn-off transition.
At the beginning of this mode, ib is diverted from S1 to flow
through the output capacitors CDS1 and CDS2. CDS1 and CDS2
are charged and discharged, respectively. As the voltage
across CDS2 (vDS2) decreases to be lower than the rectified
input voltage vrec, the boost-inductor current ip starts to
increase. When vDS2 reaches -0.7 V, DS2 turns on and Mode I
ends.
B. Mode II (t1 < t < t2)
At the beginning of Mode II, voltage vDS2 is maintained at
about -0.7 V by the antiparallel diode DS2. After the short
dead time, S2 is turned on by the gate voltage, vGS2. If the
on-resistance of S2 is small enough, most of ib will flow
through S2 in the direction from its source to drain.
Neglecting this small value of vDS2, the voltage across Lb and
Lp are equal to
vb t  Vo (1)
    2  p rec m L v t v t  V sin  f t (2)
Fig. 3. Operation modes.
0885-8993 (c) 2015 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See
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This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI
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where fL and Vm are the frequency and the amplitude of the
input line voltage, respectively. Since the time interval of
Mode I is very short, ib can be expressed as:
  0 0 ( ) ( ) o
b b
b
V
i t i t t t
L
   (3)
From (3), ib decreases from a peak value. The boost
converter is designed to operate at DCM, therefore ip
increases linearly from zero with a rising slope that is
proportional to vrec.
 
 
  0 0
sin 2
( ) rec m L
p
p p
v V f t
i t t t t t
L L
   

(4)
In Mode II, ib is higher than ip. Current ib has two loops.
Parts of ib flow through S2 and the rest are equal to ip and
flow through the line-voltage source, diode rectifier and Lp.
This mode ends when ip rises to become higher than ib.
C. Mode III (t2 < t < t3)
In Mode III, ip is higher than ib. Current ip has two loops.
Parts of ip are equal to ib and flow into the buck converter,
while the rest flow through S2. The current direction in S2 is
naturally changed, i.e. from drain to source. The voltage and
current equations for vb, vp, ib and ip are the same as (1) –
(4). Current ib decreases continuously. On the contrary, ip
keeps increasing. Since the buck converter is designed to
operate at DCM, ib will decrease to zero at the end of this
mode.
D. Mode IV (t3 < t < t4)
In this mode, S2 remains on to carry ip. Beacuse ib is zero,
the buck converter is at “OFF” state and the output capacitor
Co supplies current to load. When S2 is turned off by the
gate voltage vGS2, Mode IV ends.
E. Mode V (t4 < t < t5)
Current ip reaches a peak value at the time instant of
turning off S2. For maintaining flux balance in Lp, ip will be
diverted from S2 to flow through CDS1 and CDS2 when S2 is
turned off. CDS1 and CDS2 are discharged and charged,
respectively. Current ib is zero at the beginning of this mode,
and will start to increase when the voltage across CDS1 (vDS1)
decreases to be lower than Vdc-Vo, that is the voltage across
Lb becomes positive. As vDS1 reaches -0.7 V, DS1 turns on
and Mode V ends.
F. Mode VI (t5 < t < t6)
At the beginning of Mode VI, vDS1 is maintained at about
-0.7 V by the antiparallel diode DS1. After the short dead
time, S1 is turned on by vGS1. If the on-resistance of S1 is
small enough, most of ip will flow through S1 in the
direction from its source to drain. Neglecting this small
value of vDS1, the voltage imposed on Lp and Lb can be
respectively expressed as
     vp t  vrec t Vdc  Vm sin 2 fLt Vdc (5)
  b dc o v t  V V . (6)
For a boost converter, the dc-link voltage Vdc is higher
than the rectified voltage vrec. Neglecting the short turning
off transition of S2, ip can be expressed as:
   
 
4  4 
m 2 L dc
p p
p
V sin f t V
i t i t t t
L

  

(7)
On the contrary, the voltage across Lb is positive to make
ib rise from zero.
  4 ( ) dc o
b
b
V V
i t t t
L

  (8)
In Mode VI, ip is higher than ib. There are two loops for
ip. Parts of ip flow through S1 to charge the dc-link capacitor
Cdc and the rest are equal to ib and flow into the buck
converter. This mode ends when ib rises to become higher
than ip.
G. Mode VII (t6 < t < t7)
In Mode VII, ib is higher than ip. There are two loops for
ib. Parts of ib are equal to ip and flow into the boost converter,
while the rest flow through S1. The current direction in S1 is
naturally changed, i.e. from drain to source. The voltage and
current equations for vp, vb, ip and ib are the same as (5) – (8).
Current ib increases continuously while ip keeps decreasing.
The circuit operation enters next mode as soon as ip
decreases to zero.
H. Mode VIII (t7 < t < t8)
S1 remains on and ib keeps increasing. This mode ends at
the time when vGS1 becomes a low level to turn off S1 and,
the circuit operation returns to Mode I of the next highfrequency
cycle.
Based on the circiuit operation, prior to turning on one
active switch, the output capactance is discharged to about
0.7 V by the inductor current. Then, the intrinsic body diode
of the active switch turns on to clamp the active voltage at
nearly zero voltage. By this way, each active switch
achieves ZVS operation.
The reason for operating the buck converter at DCM is
explained below. In operation Mode II, ip rises and ib
decreases. It should be noted that ip rises in proportional to
the input voltage and has a small peak in the vicinity of
zero-cross point of the input voltage. If the buck converter is
operated at continuous-conduction mode (CCM), ib could
keep higher than ip. On this condition, the circuit operation
would not enter into Mode III and Mode IV, and vDS1 is
maintain at about Vdc. When S1 is turned on, ib is diverter
from S2 to S1. CDS1 is discharged at a high voltage of Vdc,
resulting a spike current and high switching losses.
0885-8993 (c) 2015 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See
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This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI
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Fig. 4. Theoretical waveforms of the proposed converter.
III. CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
According to the circuit operation in the previous section,
it can be seen that the antiparallel diode of the active switch
of one converter serves as the freewheeling diode of the
other converter. In spite of it, the feathers of the boost and
the buck converter can be retained. Therefore, the two
converters can be analyzed separately.
A. Boost-Converter-Type Power-Factor Corrector
The boost-inductor current ip increases from zero and
reaches a peak value at the end of Mode IV. In practical, the
frequency of the input line voltage, fL, is much lower than
that of the converters. It is reasonable to consider the
rectified input voltage vrec as a constant over a highfrequency
cycle. From (4), the peak values of ip can be
expressed as
 
 
 
 
4 0
2 2
2
m L m L s
p,peak
p p
V sin f t V sin f t T
i t t t
L L
  
 
(9)
where Ts is the high-frequency switching period. At the
beginning of Mode V, ip start to decrease. Eq. (7) can be
rewritten as
      t . T .
L
V sin f t V
L
V sin f t T
i t s
p
m L dc
p
m L s
p 0 5
2
2
2


 
 
(10)
From (10), the duration of the interval during which ip
decreases from the peak value to zero is described by
   
 .
V V sin f t
. T V sin f t
t t
dc m L
s m L
p,off 

2
0 5 2

 (11)
In order to operate the boost converter at DCM, tp,off (t)
must always be less than half of the switching period.
  , 0.5 . p off s t t  T (12)
Combining (11) and (12), Vdc should be high enough to
ensure DCM operation over an entire input line-frequency
cycle, as follows:
2 . dc m V  V (13)
The conceptual waveform of ip is shown in Fig. 5. It is
noted that the peak values of ip follow a sinusoidal envelope.
The average value of ip over a high-frequency cycle is given
by
 
0 5    
2
s p,off p,peak
p
s
. T t t i t
i t .
T
 
 (14)
It results in (15) by substituting (9) and (11) into (14).
 
 
 
2 1
8 1 1 2
m L
p
p s
L
V sin f t
i t
L f sin f t
k
 
   


(15)
where the index k is defined as
dc .
m
k V
V
 (16)
Considering the effect of diode-bridge rectification and
the low-pass filter that can remove the high-frequency
contents of ip, the input current iin is equal to the average
value of ip, as follows:
   
 
2 1
8 1 1 2
m L
in
p s
L
V sin f t
i t .
L f sin f t
k
 
   


(17)
It can be seen that iin will be close to a sinusoidal
waveform at a large value of k. In other words, Vdc should be
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This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI
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high enough to have a sinusoidal input current. Using (16)
and (17), the input power can be obtained by taking average
of the instantaneous product of the input voltage and current
over one line-frequency cycle.
     
2
0
1 2 2
8
m
in m L in L
p s
V
P Vsin ft i td ft y
L f
   
    

(18)
(18)
where y is expressed in (19), as follows: [4]
2 3
1 2
0 2
= 1 2 1 2 1 1 1
y sin d k sin k k
sin k k
k
       
   
 

  
(18)
(19)
Assuming a circuit efficiency of , the output power can
be expressed as
2
8
m
o
p s
V
P y
L f
 
 
 (20)
The root-mean-squared value of the input current is
calculated by using (17).
2    
0
1 2 =
8
m
in,rms in
p s
V
I i t d ft z
L f
  
  

 
(21)
where z is expressed in (22), as follows: [5]
Fig. 5. Conceptual waveform of the boost-inductor current.
Fig. 6. Power factor versus k. (k =Vdc/Vm).
 
 
2
0
4 3 2
2 1
2 2 3 2 2
1 1
2 2 2 1 =
1 1 2 1
z sin d
sin
k
k k k k tan
k k k

 
 
  
  
 
   
               
 




(22)
Since the input voltage is purely sinusoidal, the power
factor defined as the ratio of input power to the product of
the root-mean-squared values of input voltage and current
can be obtained by using (18) and (21).
= 2
2
in
m
in,rms
PF P y .
V I z

 (23)
The power factor as a function of k is calculated and
plotted in Fig. 6 by using (19), (22) and (23). As shown,
high power factor can be achieved at a high-valued k. From
(13), the index k should be higher than 2. In this situation,
power factor is better than 0.99.
B. Buck Converter
For DCM operation, ib rises from zero. Neglecting the
short transition of turning off S2, the rising time of ib is equal
to 0.5Ts. From (8), ib has a peak value that is equal to
 
,
2
dc o S
b peak
b
V V T
i
L

 (24)
The current ib starts to decrease when S1 is turned off. By
using (3), the time duration for ib decreasing from the peak
value to zero is given by
 
, 2
dc o S
b off
o
V V T
t
V

 (25)
For fulfilling DCM operation, tb,off should be less than
0.5Ts. This leads to
2 dc o V  V (26)
AS shown in Fig. 4, ib is with a triangular waveform and
its average value can be derived by using (24) and (25).
, , (0.5 ) ( )
2 8
s b off b peak dc o dc s
b
s bo
T t i V V V T i
T LV
 
  (27)
At steady-state operation, the average value of ib will be
equal to the output current.
o
b o
o
V
i I
R
  (28)
Combining (27) and (28), the formula of Lb for DCM
operation is derived, as follows:
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( ) ( )
8 8
dc o dc s dc o dc
b
o o o s
V V V T V V V
L
V I P f
 
  (29)
IV. DESIGN EXAMPLE AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
An illustrative example for driving sixty 1-W highbrightness
LEDs is provided. These LEDs are connected in
series. The rated voltage and current of each LED are 3.6 V
and 0.28 A, respectively. Table I lists the circuit
specifications. The input voltage is 110 Vrms ± 10%. The
switching frequency is 50 kHz at rated power operation. In
this design example, both converters are designed to operate
at DCM. The circuit parameters are designed as follows.
A. Parameters Design
From (13) and (26), Vdc should be limited between 2Vm to
2Vo. Taking the consideration of 10% input voltage
fluctuation, Vdc is chosen to be
360 V. dc V 
In this case, k is calculated to be 2.3. From Fig. 6, the
power factor higher than 0.99 can be expected.
Assuming 95% circuit efficiency, Lp and Lb can be
calculated by using (18) and (29) respectively.
2 3
1 2
3 2
0 95 155 1 2 1 2
8 50 10 60 1
=0.76 mH ( 2 3)
p
L . k sin k k
k k
k .
                      

 
3
(360 216) 360 2.14 mH.
b 8 216 0.28 50 10 L
 
 
   
Lm and Cm are designed to perform as a low-pass filter to
filter out the high-frequency components of the boostinductor
ip. By rule of thumb, the natural frequency of a
low-pass filter is about 1 decade below the switching
frequency. Here, the natural frequency is designed to be 5
kHz, and Lm and Cm are determined to be
2 16 mH, 0 47 μF. m m L  . C  .
B. Dimming operation
The LED had been tested at different power. Fig. 7 shows
its V-I curve. Based on these experimental results, the LED
voltage as a function of output power can be expressed as
3 2
0 0 0 0 0003 0 0407 2 4742 150 oV  . P  . P  . P  (30)
For dimming operation, the output voltage is adjusted to
regulate the LED current. As shown in (20), Po is functions
of y and fs. From (19), the parameter y would vary slightly
when k is in the neighbor of 2.3. Hence, it is reasonable to
assume that Po is inversely proportional to the switching
frequency. By using (29), Vdc can be expressed as
2
2 32
o o b o s
dc
V V L P f
V
 
 (31)
Fig. 8 shows the theoretical curves of Vdc and fs versus Po.
Using (30) and (31), if the LED is dimmed from 100% to
30% rated power, the switching frequency would vary form
50 kHz to 167 kHz. The dc-link voltage and the output
voltage vary form 360 V to 336 V and 216 V to 183.1 V.
During the dimming operation, (13) and (26) are satisfied to
ensure both converters operate at DCM. In other words, the
inductor current of one converter will decline to zero before
turning off the active switch of the other converter. It
ensures the intrinsic body diode of one active switch will be
turned on to flow the inductor current when the other active
switch is turned off. By this way, ZVS operation can be
achieved within the dimming range.
A prototype circuit is built and tested. Table II lists the
circuit parameters. Since the I–V characteristic of an LED is
similar to that of a diode, a small variation in the LED
voltage will result in a significant change in its current.
Generally, constant current control with low-frequency
pulse-width modulation is usually used to realize LED
TABLE I. CIRCUIT SPECIFICATIONS.
Input Line Voltage, vin 110 Vrms±10%, 60 Hz
High Switching Frequency, fS1, f S2 50 kHz
Output Power, Po 60 W
Output Voltage, Vo 216 V (= 3.6 V 60)
Output Current, Io 0.28 A
Fig. 7. V-I curve of tested LED.
, rated value (%) o o P P
Fig. 8. Vdc and fs versus Po.
0885-8993 (c) 2015 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See
http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI
10.1109/TPEL.2015.2439963, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Fig. 9. Control circuit.
dimming. However, it requires complicated circuit to
precisely detect the peak value of the pulsed LED current. In
this prototype circuit, sixty LEDs are connected in series
and then, more voltage change is needed to dim the LED. It
makes the series-connected LEDs can be easily dimmed by
voltage control. Fig. 9 shows the closed-loop control circuit
that mainly consists of a double-ended controller (L6599)
for half-bridge topology and a photocoupler (PC817). The
L6599 provides a pair of gate voltages with fixed dead time
(0.3μs) to drive both active switches. Output voltage
regulation is obtained by modulating the switching
frequency. The feedback signal of the output voltage is
transferred to pin 4 of the L6599 via the phototransistor of
the optocoupler to modulate the switching frequency. The
output voltage is varied by adjusting the variable resistor
VR1 for dimming LED.
Fig. 10 to Fig. 13 shows voltage and current waveforms
that are measured at rated output power. Fig. 10 shows the
waveforms of the input voltage, the input current and the
boost-converter current. It is seen that the boost converter
operates at DCM over an entire cycle of the line voltage.
The input current is close to a sinusoidal waveform. Besides,
the input current and the input voltage are in phase with
each other. High power factor and low THDi can be
achieved. The measured power factor and THDi are 0.995
and 9.25%, respectively. It complies with the standards of
IEC 61000-3-2 class D. Fig. 11 shows the waveforms of the
output voltage and output current. The measured values well
satisfy the theoretical prediction. The inductor-current
waveforms of both converters are shown in Fig. 12. Both
converters operate at DCM. Fig. 13 shows the voltage and
current waveforms of the active switches which are
measured at the peak point and the zero-crossing point of
the input-line voltage, respectively. As shown, both active
switches are switched on at nearly zero voltage. With ZVS
operation at both active switches, the circuit efficiency is as
high as 94.8%. It is noted that ip is almost zero at the zerocrossing
point of the AC voltage and cannot fully discharge
the output capacitance of S1 within the deadtime. When S1 is
turned on at the end of deadtime, the remaining charges in
the output capacitance rapidly flow through S1, resulting in a
spike current, as shown in Fig. 13 (b). Since the non-ZVS
operation only happens at the zero-crossing point of the AC
input, it insignificantly impairs the circuit efficiency. In
order to know how much efficiency can be improved with
proposed circuit, a two-stage boost+buck prototyped circuit
is built and tested with the same circuit specification as the
proposed circuit. At 50 kHz switching frequency, the
measure efficiency of the two-stage circuit is 90.7%.
The measured curves of power factor, THDi and circuit
efficiency over a load range from 30% to 100% rated power
are shown in Fig. 14. Power factor is close to unity over the
wide load range, while THDi increases dramatically when
the output power is less than 50% rated power. Since the
output power is inversely proportional to the switching
frequency, more circuit losses would happen at light load.
The circuit efficiency drops to 0.84 at 30 % rated power.
TABLE II. CIRCUIT PARAMETERS.
Filter Inductor Lm 2.16 mH
Filter Capacitor Cm 0.47 μF
Boost Inductor Lp 0.76 mH
DC-Link Capacitors Cdc 100 μF
Buck Inductor Lb 2.14 mH
Buck Capacitor Co 100 μF
Active Switches S1, S2 IRF840
Diodes D5 MUR460
Fig. 10. Waveforms of vin, iin and ip (vin: 200 V/div, iin, ip: 2 A/div, time: 5
ms/div).
0885-8993 (c) 2015 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See
http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI
10.1109/TPEL.2015.2439963, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Fig. 11. Waveforms of Vo and Io (Vo: 100 V/div, Io: 0.1 A/div, time: 5
ms/div).
Fig. 12. Waveforms of ip, and ib (ip, ib: 2 A/div, time: 10 us/div).
(a)
(b)
Fig. 13. Waveforms of vDS1, iS1, vDS2, and iS2 at (a) the peak point and (b)
the zero-crossing point of the input-line voltage (vDS1, vDS2: 200 V/div, iS1,
iS2: 2 A/div, time: 5 us/div).
, rated value (%) o o P P
Fig. 14. Measured power factor, THDi and circuit efficiency for different
output power.
V. CONCLUSIONS
A high efficiency ZVS ac/dc converter that integrates a
boost converter and a buck converter is proposed. By
freewheeling the inductor currents of the converters to flow
through each of the intrinsic diodes of the MOSFETs, both
active switches are turned on at ZVS. It assures high circuit
efficiency. The boost converter is designed to operate at
DCM to perform the function of PFC. It requires that dclink
voltage should be higher than two times of the
amplitude of input voltage. The buck converter further
regulates the dc-link voltage to obtain a stable dc voltage
with low ripple. Experimental results based on the 60-W
prototype circuit show that high circuit efficiency, high
power factor and low THDi can be achieved over a wide
load range. A circuit efficiency of 94.8%, power factor of
0.995 and a THDi of 9.25% are measured at rated output
power.
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0885-8993 (c) 2015 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See
http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI
10.1109/TPEL.2015.2439963, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
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On 9:39 PM by anil durgam   No comments

what is an embedded systems?
where are using the embedded systems exactly?
what is the role of the embedded systems now a days?
tell me the embedded systems example devices?
do you have any embedded system device with you?
are you tried any programming on your smart phones?
is it necessary embedded devices? if not tell the reason?if yes tell the reason?
what is programming language we will use in the embedded systems?
is there any different and different languages for different devices?
tell me which microcontroller is preferable and  why?
before doing any project what we have to check first?
without proper knowledge on the device if your connecting with any other device what will happen?


Friday, February 27, 2015

On 6:46 AM by anil durgam   No comments
Accept three numbers from user and find maximum number.
a. Using if..else if ladder
b. Using logical operators
c. Using conditional operator
On 6:42 AM by anil durgam   No comments
Write a program to display days in the given year. Check condition from leap year. A year is a leap
year if it is divisible by 4 but not by 100, except that years divisible by 400 are leap years.
a. Without using logical operators
b. Using logical operators
c. Conditional operators
On 6:16 AM by anil durgam   No comments


1.   Write a program to accept a integer value and display whether its odd or even number. (if – else)
On 6:14 AM by anil durgam   No comments


1.   Write a program to accept two numbers and display division of  the two numbers. Check for divide by zero error. If divider is zero then display appropriate error message.(if – else)
On 6:04 AM by anil durgam   No comments


1.   Write a program to accept the integer value and print its table.
                    Note:
                                     i.        Solve above problem without using any loops method.
                                    ii.        Solve above problem with using loops method (for, do-while, while).